Frequently asked questions
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
What are halogen-free cables?
Halogen-free cables are a group of cables that do not spread fire, do not emit harmful gases, and have reduced smoke density during burning. These cables are free of halogens, which means they do not contain acids such as chlorine, bromine, and iodine, which are typically used in standard cables. The properties of halogen-free cables make them suitable for use in the energy industry and other areas where there is a high risk of fire. Halogen-free cables are also environmentally friendly, as they reduce the amount of harmful substances released into the atmosphere during burning. If you are in the energy industry and looking for cables that are safer and more eco-friendly, consider halogen-free cables.
Where are halogen-free cables most commonly used in the energy industry?
When it comes to safety and reliability in the energy industry, cables are an essential part of any system. That is why it is crucial to choose high-quality cables with improved characteristics, especially when it comes to public infrastructure such as airports, shopping centers, schools, hospitals, office buildings, tunnels, and other similar facilities where a large number of people are present.
Cables with improved characteristics are specially designed to prevent the spread of fire, the release of toxic gases, and reduce the amount of smoke that is released in the event of a fire. In addition to helping prevent the spread of fire, these cables can maintain their function even during a fire, making them an ideal choice for public facilities that are at high risk.
How many types of halogen-free cables are there and what are their characteristics?
Halogen-free cables can be divided into two major categories - cables with improved fire performance and cables with fire-resistance functions E30, E60, E90, E120. Both types of cables have a common characteristic of not releasing toxic gases when burning, but their application is not the same in all buildings. You can read more about fire-resistant cables in question number 2. It is important to note that the term "Fire resistant" is used in English for cables with fire-resistance functions, while the term "Fire retardant" is used for cables that do not have toxic substances but do not have fire-resistance functions.
What are the standard halogen-free cables?
Our cable solutions have been tested and comply with IEC EN 60332-1-2, 61034-2, 60332-3-24 standards for safety and quality. These standards ensure that halogen-free cables have a high level of fire protection, low smoke and gas emissions, as well as being fire-resistant and non-spreading. This makes them the ideal choice for use in the energy industry, where safety and reliability are of paramount importance.
IEC EN 60332-1-2 - This standard establishes test methods for determining the ability of cables not to propagate flames when in contact with fire. Specifically, this standard relates to the ability of the cable to withstand vertical burning, which is important for preventing the spread of fire.
IEC 61034-2 - This standard relates to the measurement of the amount of smoke produced by the cable during combustion. Smoke emission control is particularly important in the energy industry, as it can affect the visibility and safety of people working nearby.
IEC EN 60332-3-24 - This standard focuses on testing the cable in the event of a fire starting near the cable. This test evaluates the ability of the cable not to spread the flame beyond the point of ignition, which can prevent the spread of fire.
What are the most common types of halogen-free cables used in the energy industry?
The most commonly used types of cables in the energy industry are NHXMH, N2XH, N2XCH, J-H(St)H, JE-H(St)H, LIHCH, and NA2XH. Additionally, there are different types of networking, optical, or coaxial cables that can be used provided they have the LSOH, LSZH, or FRNC markings.
What are fire-resistant cables used for?
Fire-resistant cables are an essential component in the energy industry, particularly in public buildings with a large number of occupants. In addition to conducting electricity like any other cables, these cables play a crucial role in the event of a fire.
In public buildings, fire-resistant cables connect various systems, including ventilation devices, fire detection lines, elevators, and other systems that are essential for evacuating people in the event of a fire. These cables maintain their functionality even when burning, and are therefore critical to maintaining system stability during a fire.
Furthermore, fire-resistant cables have additional advantages over other cable types. They do not emit toxic gases and have reduced smoke density, which is extremely important for people's safety in case of a fire.
In summary, fire-resistant cables are essential components in public buildings and play a crucial role in maintaining people's safety in case of a fire. Their functionality and reliability, even in fire conditions, make them extremely important for the energy industry.
What are the cables that have a function in a fire and how to recognize them?
The answer to this question is found in the standards and testing that cables must undergo.
All cables with a function in a fire are manufactured according to the DIN VDE 0276-604 (VDE 0276 Teil 604) and DIN VDE 0276-627 (VDE 0276 Teil 627) and DIN VDE 0815 standards and tested according to the EN 5200 and EN 60331-21 standards as mandatory. However, it is important to note that this is not enough. Cables must also pass testing in the system according to the DIN 4102-12 standard. This testing involves testing cable systems in cable racks and traces with clamps. The result of this testing classifies the cable into one of three categories: E30, E60, or E90. The most commonly required characteristics are E30 and E90.
Cables with a function in a fire are essential for protecting life and property in case of a fire. This is especially important in the energy industry, where fire risks are high. To ensure that you have chosen cables with a function in a fire, we recommend checking whether they are produced according to the above-mentioned standards and have passed testing according to the DIN 4102-12 standard. Our company offers a wide range of fire-resistant cables that meet these standards and will provide you with peace of mind in case of a fire.
It is important to know that only cables with a valid VDE certificate can guarantee safety in case of a fire. This information is easily verifiable on the VDE institute website at the following link:
In order for a cable to receive a VDE certification, it must pass testing according to the DIN 4102-12 standard, which means it is compatible with cable trays in which it has been tested. Prior to purchasing cables, you can request testing results from your supplier to confirm which tray manufacturer is compatible with the cables you intend to buy.
For maximum safety and functionality of the system you have designed or installed, we recommend using cables that are certified according to the DIN 4102-12 standard. You can view a recording of one of the tests at the following link:
Testing according to the DIN 4102-12 standard represents a highly rigorous treatment conducted under fire conditions that are more severe than those that may occur in real-life situations. This standard is applied in the energy industry to verify the fire resistance of cables and ensure that they remain functional even after exposure to high temperatures.
It is important to note that for the testing according to this standard and the certificate obtained after the testing to be valid, the testing must be carried out by a third party, an accredited laboratory certified according to the ISO 17025 certification. This ensures the independence of the testing and guarantees that the testing results are reliable and accurate.
Considering the fact that low-quality cables are often found on the market, it is important for consumers to be informed whether the cables they plan to purchase have been tested and certified according to energy industry standards. This way, unwanted consequences that may arise from using cables that do not meet quality standards can be avoided.
What do the markings E30, E60, and E90 mean on a cable?
If you are looking for cables that will remain functional and safe even in the event of a fire, you should familiarize yourself with the markings E30, E60, and E90. These markings indicate how long a given cable (together with its tray or clip) can maintain its function in the event of a fire.
Therefore, if you are looking for a cable with the E30 marking, it means that the cable can maintain its function in the event of a fire for at least 30 minutes. Similarly, cables with the E60 and E90 markings will be able to maintain their function in the event of a fire for at least 60 and 90 minutes, respectively.
To ensure that the cables can indeed maintain their function in the event of a fire, they are tested according to the DIN 4102-12 standard on a tray that must also bear the E30, E60, or E90 marking. If cables have not been tested and do not have the E30, E60, or E90 marking, they cannot be considered functional in the event of a fire.
Cables that are laid in conventional trays and bear the E30, E60, or E90 marking can maintain their function only if the trays on which they are laid have been tested and bear the appropriate marking as well.
If you want to ensure the functionality of cables with the E30, E60, or E90 marking, you can view the testing conducted according to the DIN 4102-12 standard at the following link:
What does the FE180 cable marking signify?
The FE180 cable marking refers to a type of cable that has successfully passed tests according to the IEC 60331-21 standard. This standard defines requirements for the insulation durability in a fire, as well as circuit integrity. This means that the cable has been tested in laboratory conditions, where it was exposed to flames for 180 minutes, without short-circuiting or cable breakage.
It's important to note that this marking does not guarantee that the cable will operate on E30, E60, or E90 routes. It only guarantees that the cable will retain its insulation and circuit integrity during a fire lasting for 180 minutes.
Additionally, you can see what the testing process for a cable marked with FE180 looks like by following the link below.
How does a cable marked as PH120 behave in a sprinkler zone?
The PH120 label can be found on telecommunication, optical, and data transmission cables. It indicates that the cable has successfully passed testing according to the European standard EN 50200. This standard applies to small-diameter cables used in emergency power circuits, specifically for internal fire protection installations. PH120 indicates that the cable can function for 120 minutes in the event of a fire.
However, it is important to note that PH120 cable does not always mean that the cable will function for 120 minutes in all conditions. Testing according to EN 50200 is carried out in laboratory conditions where the cable is subjected to fire and physical stress every few seconds. Under such conditions, cables marked with PH120 have been able to function for 120 minutes. However, in real conditions involving water spraying, cable functionality may change.
If a cable comes into contact with water in sprinkler zones under real conditions, we cannot expect it to maintain its functionality for longer than 30 minutes. This is because water significantly affects the cable's functionality. When cables are tested according to the EN 50200 + Annex E standard, which defines testing with fire, physical stress, and water, the cable's functionality is only measured for 30 minutes.
Therefore, the conclusion is that PH120 indicates the cable's functionality for 120 minutes in the event of a fire in internal fire installations. However, if the cable comes into contact with water in sprinkler zones, we cannot expect it to maintain its functionality for longer than 30 minutes. Outside of these zones, cables labeled with PH120 must have indicated functionality.
If you want to learn more about testing the PH120 cable according to the EN50200 standard, you can watch videos at the following links:
What types of cable supports according to DIN 4102-12 standard have ERSE CABLES with fire-resistant function been tested on?
In the energy industry, it is crucial that cables are reliable and durable. ERSE CABLES have undergone a series of tests in a system according to DIN 4102-12 standard with cable rack manufacturers BAKS, NIEDAX, PUK GERPAAS, and others. All tests were conducted in accredited laboratories of EFECTIS or MPA institutes, ensuring accurate and reliable test results.
ERSE CABLES have been tested on cable racks that comply with the DIN 4102-12 standard. These cable supports are used in industrial facilities such as power plants, oil and gas processing plants, and other locations with a high risk of fire.
If you want to view the test results and certificates, please feel free to contact us. We are always willing to share this information and answer any questions you may have.
Fire detection cables are essential for safety and protection in the energy industry. When selecting fire detection cables, there are several factors to consider, including insulation type, cable color, and other specific requirements.
What are fire detection cables?
Fire detection cables are special cables used to transmit signals in the event of a fire. They are always red in color and are often used within fire detection systems. If only fire detection is required, a FIRE SIGNALIZATION CABLE with PVC insulation is used. However, if the cable needs to be halogen-free, a J-H(St)H…Bd cable is used. For cases where the cable must be both halogen-free and have fire-resistant properties, JE-H(St)H..Bd E30, E90, and PH120 cables are used.
Using the right fire detection cable is crucial for safety in the energy industry. Not only do appropriate cables ensure reliable and efficient signaling in case of a fire, but they can also reduce the risk of fires and other accidents. Therefore, it is important to choose a cable with adequate insulation and specific characteristics that meet the needs of your fire detection system.
NHXHX cable is not widely used in Europe as it is produced only by domestic factories or those that cater exclusively to the Serbian market. While it has better insulation than N2XH, this cable does not have a fire-resistant function.
Due to its almost non-existent usage today, domestic factories either refuse to produce it or are not capable of doing so. Even if they do accept the order, the production cost of this cable is much higher than that of N2XH cable. Therefore, it can be concluded that this type of cable unnecessarily increases the cost for investors, regardless of its lack of fire-resistant or other important performance features.
For older projects where this cable appears, engineers decide to replace it with N2XH cable for objective reasons. In more demanding facilities in terms of safety, NHXHX cable is replaced with NHXH FE180 E cable.
If you are in need of high-quality and safe cables for your energy projects, we recommend investing in N2XH or NHXH FE180 E cables. Contact us today to learn more about our wide selection of cables and find the best one for your project.
Quality of Cables in the Energy Industry - Why is the VDE Marking on the Cable Important?
Buying cables for the energy industry can be complicated, especially for inexperienced buyers. In this text, we will explain what the VDE marking on the cable means and why it is important to purchase a cable that is certified according to VDE standards.
The quality of cables in the energy industry is of great importance to ensure reliable distribution of electrical energy. However, there are many manufacturers that offer cable products of varying quality. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the VDE marking on the cable.
Cables that are produced according to VDE standards must bear the marking ◀(VDE)▶ along the entire length of the cable. This marking consists of two triangles, which indicate that the cable is certified according to VDE standards. A cable that does not have the VDE marking or has the VDE marking without triangles is not produced according to VDE standards, even if the manufacturer has a VDE certificate. Such cables often do not meet the minimum quality requirements, although they may be cheaper than certified cables.
A manufacturer who wants to certify their cable products according to VDE standards must go through a two-year certification process. The company receives a VDE institute certificate after 2-3 months of product testing, during which time the VDE institute samples and tests the products to ensure that they meet the minimum quality requirements. If the product does not meet the quality criteria, the manufacturer loses the right to certify that product at the VDE institute. The certificate is unique and valid for two years, after which it is retested and can be extended if the retesting shows that the product still meets the required standards. The unique certificate number is not replaced, only its validity is extended in the public database under the same number.
You can check the importance of the certificate on the VDE institute's website, where a list of certified products is available. By purchasing cables with the VDE marking, you can be sure that you have received a high-quality product and that your electrical distribution system will work in the best possible way.
When it comes to replacing the cross-sectional area of copper cable with aluminum cable, it is important to consider several factors to ensure a proper replacement. One key factor is the conductivity of the material. Copper has higher conductivity than aluminum, so it is necessary to use a larger cross-sectional area of aluminum cable compared to the copper cable in order to achieve similar conductivity. There are several tables and formulas used to determine the equivalent cross-sectional area of aluminum cable for a given cross-sectional area of copper cable. This information can be found in cable standards, technical specifications, and literature related to electrical power engineering and installations. It is important to emphasize that replacing copper cable with aluminum cable requires careful calculation and consideration of system specifics and the environment in which the cable will be used. Consultation with our experts in the field of electrical installations is always recommended to ensure proper replacement and maintain system safety and functionality. It is also important to note that aluminum cables have the potential for corrosion, so appropriate protection and maintenance measures need to be taken to ensure durability and reliability of the system.
XP00 cable has insulation made of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), while PP00 cable has insulation made of plastic (PVC). Both cables have an outer sheath made of PVC.
XP00 is the designation according to the Serbian standard (while N2XY is the designation for the same cable according to international standards, in this case, according to DIN VDE 0276-603 / HD 603 S1 / IEC 60502). XLPE stands for cross-linked polyethylene. The wire insulation is XLPE, while the outer sheath is made of PVC.
PP00 is the designation according to the Serbian standard (while NYY is the designation for the same cable according to international standards, in this case, according to DIN VDE 0276-603 / HD 603 S1 / IEC 60502). The "Y" in NYY represents plastic (PVC). Both the insulation and the outer jacket of this cable are made of PVC.
The main differences between these cables are:
- PVC has a maximum temperature resistance of up to 70°C, while XLPE can withstand temperatures up to 90°C. Depending on the required operating temperature of the conductor, one of these two materials is used. XLPE can withstand higher current passing through the conductor, which in some cases allows for the use of a cable with a smaller cross-section.
- In the event of a short circuit, PVC can withstand a temperature of up to 160°C for one second, while XLPE can withstand a temperature of up to 250°C for one second.
- XLPE also has advantages over PVC in terms of mechanical protection and better properties, such as higher resistance to vibrations, better resistance to moisture, less deformation at higher temperatures, better resistance to oils and organic chemicals, longer service life, and it is chlorine-free, making it a more environmentally friendly option.
CoC stands for Certificate of Conformity and refers to a document issued by an authorized certification body in Serbia, confirming that a product complies with the currently applicable directives and standards. As of December 31, 2021, this document is no longer mandatory and has been renamed to Certificate of Compliance. We are able to obtain it for all products upon customer request, which we often do.
Every construction product within the European Economic Area (EEA) must comply with the EU Regulation for Construction Products (CPR - Construction Products Regulation), also known as the Construction Products Regulation. This regulation states that all products traded in Europe must bear the CE mark when there is a harmonized standard for that product. The CE mark indicates that the product is compliant with the regulation. However, it does not necessarily mean that the product is suitable for all end uses; it signifies that the product is consistent with its Declaration of Performance (DoP), prepared by the manufacturer.
A construction product with the CE mark can be freely traded throughout the EEA without being hindered by individual countries or subject to additional requirements.
The manufacturer of a product required to bear the CE mark is responsible for ensuring that the product meets all the requirements. The manufacturer must ensure that all evidence is available and presented correctly. This includes affixing the CE mark to the product and distributing the Declaration of Performance (DoP).
Importers and/or distributors must ensure that construction products, where necessary, bear the CE mark and are accompanied by accurate documentation, instructions, and safety information. Distributors must also verify that the manufacturer and importer have complied with the requirements of the Construction Products Directive.
R Circular conductor
S Sector-shaped conductor
E Solid conductor
M Stranded conductor
RE Circular conductor, solid
RM Circular conductor, stranded
SE Sector-shaped conductor, solid
SM Sector-shaped conductor, stranded
OPGW (Optical Ground Wire) is a type of optical cable that has become increasingly popular in the energy industry over the last few years. These cables are installed on power line towers and provide an integrated communication infrastructure that enables more efficient transmission of information through the existing power grid. By using OPGW cables, companies can enhance their operational efficiency, reduce maintenance costs, and improve the overall performance of their power grid.
Looking for cable prices in the energy industry?
When it comes to calculating cable prices, it's important to note that the prices of hollow conductors are fixed for a specific period, while the current valid price of copper or aluminum on the London Metal Exchange (LME) is added to them, depending on the manufacturer or needs.
For our clients, we offer special discounts depending on the category and payment method. As metal prices fluctuate daily and now even the prices of hollow conductors are becoming variable over shorter periods of time, we advise you to contact our sales team with your project requirements. Our team will always find the best solution for you.
For larger projects, we offer financing as well as guaranteed prices for the next few months. For long-term partners, we have special benefits such as cable replacement during project execution, compensation, and assistance in choosing contractors.
If you need support in selecting the best cables for your project, our team of experts is here to help. Contact us today for more information.
How to Contact the Sales Team at Elektrometal Plus?
For all your queries related to our energy industry cables, reach out to Elektrometal Plus sales team. We offer the best products and services, and our experts are here to assist you in every step.
Contact us via email at email@example.com, fax at +381 13 806 208, or phone at +381 13 805 393.
To reach our Belgrade branch office, call us at +381 11 41 55 121 or fax at +381 11 41 55 129. Don't hesitate to get in touch today to learn how we can fulfill your requirements.
What is the minimum order quantity for cables?
At Elektrometal Plus, we specialize in providing high-quality cables tailored to your specific needs in the energy industry. Whether you require just one meter of cable or several kilometers, we are here to provide you with exceptional service.
We offer flexible cutting options, so you can order precisely the amount of cable you need. Additionally, if you're interested in purchasing a particular cable, we offer samples before you buy, subject to availability.
The only limitations you may encounter are related to transport and unloading at construction sites or improvised warehouses. When ordering cables with larger cross-sections, it's essential to consider the weight of the required lengths.
How to efficiently transport cables to construction sites or warehouses in the energy industry?
At Elektrometal Plus, our logistics team provides professional delivery services using our own freight vehicles with a carrying capacity of 1t, 5t, 10t, and 24t across foreign and domestic markets. We organize deliveries according to our clients' requirements to ensure timely delivery of goods.
If you need reliable logistics services for your business, we are here to help. Trust us to handle your cable delivery needs.
At Elektrometal Plus, we offer a wide range of cables that meet the latest European standards. Whether you require cables for the 50Hz frequency used in Serbian railways or for certain European railways that operate at 16.333Hz, we have everything you need.
We understand that each project has unique needs, which is why our offering includes cables with reduction factors that can be customized to your specific requirements. We also have PNK cables in stock, which are commonly used in the railway industry.
The usual cross-sections for telecommunication cables used by railways are 0.9mm and 1.4mm, and we offer both in our range. Our cables are of high quality and durable, ensuring long-term reliability and efficiency in your project.
When you purchase a cable at Elektrometal Plus, you'll receive a Routine Test Report directly linked to the factory number of the drum. This document is the result of post-production testing for each individual drum and contains the test conditions and results required by the standard under which the cable is produced.
Our cables are always tested at much higher voltages than their nominal rating. For example, if the nominal voltage is 1kV, the cable is tested at 4kV for a minimum of 5 minutes, with no breakdown allowed. Cables tested in this way, combined with proper handling and storage, provide complete safety and reliability.
For certain cables, such as network cables, coaxial cables, or installation cables, routine testing is done on groups or random samples. Even in these cases, the factory issues a test to confirm the quality of the specific group.
We offer a wide range of high-quality cables that are tested and verified to meet our standards. With us, you can rest assured that you're purchasing products that will provide you with safety and reliability at all times.
As experts in the field, we would like to draw your attention to the significance of a Type Approval Certificate for cables.
A Type Approval Certificate is a document issued by an accredited laboratory that describes in detail the technical results obtained from testing a cable. This one-time testing is conducted for each cable type in all cross-sections to clearly identify its capabilities and characteristics. It is not a routine test but is carried out for product certification.
If a manufacturer has a certificate from an accredited laboratory, it is considered to have a Type Approval Certificate, and this document is not often required by regulators, designers, or investors. However, this type of certification and documentation can be crucial for your safety and protection of your investment.